Volume 13, Issue 3, Autumn 2013, Page 1-386


The effect of symmetric drills and small games on the development of some aspects of motor learning disability in the nursery school

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 1-18

The effect of symmetric drills and small games on the development of some aspects of motor learning disability in the nursery school

Children who suffer from motor learning disability show a lot of aspects of low movement as a result of cerebral dysfunction such as the low level of coordination and lack of balance. Such cases have their negative effect on the children's ability to perform certain athletic skills and movements, especially the most complex ones. This requires that researchers should seriously approach such a problem if we know that there are no educational institutions dealing with such cases that require the introduction of drills and exercises.

This study aims at preparing symmetrical exercises and small games to develop some aspects of motor learning disabilities (coordination, balance, and fitness) of children and exploring the effect of symmetrical exercises and small games on the development of motor skills of children.

The hypotheses of the study are: symmetric exercises and small games have their positive effect on the development of some aspects of motor learning disability of children, and there are significant differences between the effect of symmetric exercises and small games and in the interest of symmetric exercises.

The experimental method is used by the researchers by designing equal groups. The community of the research includes the children of Al-uroba Nursery for Children in the Babylon Governorate, who suffer from motor learning disability.

The study comes up with some important conclusions. First of all, the symmetric exercises and small games and the curriculum taken by the teacher in nursery have a positive effect on the development of some aspects of motor learning disabilities of children who suffer from motor learning disabilities. Another significant conclusion is that the symmetric exercises are more effective than both the small games and the curriculum taken by the nursery on the development of aspects of learning disabilities (agility and coordination and balance) of children who suffer from motor learning disabilities. It is worth to mention that the development of motor skills in children who suffer from motor learning disabilities in the first half of the period of the curriculum is much more effective in the second half of the period of the curriculum.

Building and rationing a scale of self-efficiency expectations for students of the College of Physical Education

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 19-32

Bandora is considered as one of the most significant psychological scientist and the first one who refers to the concept of self-efficiency which is connected with optimistic beliefs of the athlete as being able to deal with different forms of attitudes and difficulties faced during the performance of sports skills to achieve certain objectives. The predictions of self-efficiency have their effect on the selection of the right athletic activity, the amount of strain spent by an athlete, its duration, and the level of performance. They predict the level of an athlete's performance, depending on his physical, psychological and skill capabilities.
The problem of the research lies in the absence of an instrument to measure the expectations of self-efficacy among the students the college of physical education. Thus, the study aims at building and rationing a scale to measure the expectations of self-efficiency for the students the college of physical education. This is to identify the level of self-efficacy among students and contribute to the induction of development of students during their undergraduate study.
The descriptive method is used by the researchers because it highly suits the nature of this study. The community of the research includes the students of the college of physical education/ Al-Qadisiya University for the academic year (2011- 2012). The sample of the research is selected as (59%) of the research community and accordingly, the number of students (420) students and by (369) students which is a percentage (88%) of the sample, and in return (51) students, which accounts for amount (12%) of the sample are selected randomly and in the disproportionate manner.
The research comes up with some conclusions and recommendations. It is concluded that the scale of self-efficiency expectations has the ability to distinguish between students and is characterized by high degree of scale stability, and that expectations are obtained on a standardized scale to measure self-efficiency among students of the college of physical education. The use of the scale of self-efficiency expectations among the students of the college of physical education is highly recommended.

Sports Emigration and its Relationship to psychological Endurance Kickboxing Players

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 65-82

Through follow-up observation and personal interview to identify the extent of the risk and difficulty of movements possessed by the players of kickboxing and the need of composure and strength of nerves during the competition and cases of provocation by the rival, the researchers note that there is a lack of interest by most coaches in the psychological aspects of the players. This research is conducted to identify the level of psychological capacity represented by sports emigration and the psychological endurance that the players have to overcome them and find appropriate solutions.

The descriptive method in the style of surveying the relational relations as it greatly suits the nature of the research and the society of the research represented by the kickboxing players. This method also fits the tools, means of research, the scientific transactions of the two measures and the scientific foundations of the validity and reliability, objectivity and the pilot test. Appropriate statistical treatments are conducted in order to get to results that enable us to come up with the most important conclusions and recommendations.

It is concluded that sports emigration is strongly associated to psychological endurance for kickboxing players of (12-16) years and the age group (23 years and more). There is also the presence of slight differences between the players and the age groups of the three in sports emigration. No differences between the players for the three age groups in the psychological endurance are found.

Endurance of Performance and its Relationship to Some Biokinmatic Variables of Shooting by Jumping from ( 9m ) height for Advanced Handball Players

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 83-104

The skill of shooting by jumping from (9m) height is one of the most basic skills upon which achievement and the best results largely depend. The level of the technical performance of the skill must be high because of the importance of this skill and that this improvement in the performance of skill is revealed through biokinmatic indicators at the moment of shooting the ball.
This study is an attempt to find an access to treat failure in the skill of performance and to obtain adequate information to be supplied for players and coaches. It is worth to mention that any sort of weakness in this respect will lead to the loss of a lot of goals and that attack will not be performed correctly.
The importance of research lies in the fact that researchers have not dealt with the endurance of performance through biokinmatic variables which is considered an important part in the course of the performance of this skill.
The problem of the research considers shooting as the product of efforts and that all the skills and plans become useless if not culminate in valid shooting which is the primary means to determine the result of the match. The paper comes up with several conclusions. The variables of the study in question have their direct effect on the performance of skill, specifying when and where the player begins to jump at (9m) height to shooting in handball.

Building a Scale for the privatization of sports clubs in Diwaniyah Province

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 105-126

The problem of this research lies in the fact that many of the sports clubs complain about the permanent financial deficit fiscal deficit which becomes the main justification the negative results made in this respect. The lack of balance between the incomes and expenses of various kinds , including the dues of players, makes permanent disability the norm and that its accumulation leads to the absence of the club or group of clubs from the sports area as well as the large number of administrative problems with the Supreme Administrative Court and the scarcity of managerial and organizational qualifications working in this field as well as the absence of the scientific undertaking of procedures which is the norm in the developed countries at a time when improvised and random ways of management still prevail in running the Iraqi sports clubs.
The aim of this research is building a scale for the privatization of sports clubs in Diwaniyah province in the light of contemporary global economic shifts
The descriptive method is used by the researchers its suitability to the nature of the research. A model for the privatization of sports is built. The statistical community is (1172) members representing (293) sports club. The sample of the research is selected according to the method of class RAM (Stratified Random Sample). (496) members are chosen according to distribution disproportionate ( Prepositional Allocation), representing (124), which is equal to (42%) to ensure the representation of the class to the research community.
One of the most important conclusions which the study comes up with is that the sports media message should be based on honesty and clarity when advertising a service or product, or sports activities. Moreover, the motives of the privatization process in the transformation of the public sector to the private sector in sports clubs is to solve the problems of financing of sports clubs.

The Effect of a Training Curriculum and the Black Bean Seeds on Some Components of the Immune System and Aspects of Muscle Strength and the Achievement of Discus Throwing

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 127-152

The problem of this research problem is that there are some fluctuations in the level of achievement in the effectiveness of discus throwing. Through the researcher's acquaintance with several championships of Athletics, especially throwing events, it is noted that there are fluctuations in the level of achievement compared to the international level, despite the emphasis of the coaches on the exercises of muscle strength, which have their high impact and significant level of achievement, as well as the lack of attention to the other physiological variables that have their impact on improving the forms of strength. It is felt that a proposed training curriculum by using black bean seeds be prepared due to the importance of some components of the black bean seeds to the immune system and achievement.

The research aims at identifying the impact of the proposed training curriculum and black bean seeds on some components of the immune system and achievement in discus throwing. The experimental method in the style of equal is used by the researcher because it highly suits the nature of the research.

The research comes up with several conclusions and recommendations. It is concluded that there are significant differences in the maximal strength tests as a result of the impact of the proposed program on the experimental disabled groups. There are significant differences in the protein immunity (IgA) and immune complement (C3) from the normal level in the upper direction as a result of the use of the proposed training curriculum with black bean seeds, especially for the first experimental group.
The need for regular check-ups for athletes in specialized sports medicine centers to ensure the health situation in general and the immune system is highly recommended. It is also recommended that black bean seeds be considered as a supplement to the content of minerals and vitamins, proteins and salts in sufficient quantities to meet the needs of athletes from the basic materials needed by the body for the purpose of achievement.

Identifying Standards and Levels of Some Physical Variables for First-Class basketball Referees in Iraq

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 153-184

The importance of this research lies in the fact that basketball is one of the widely spread sports all over the world, and that developed countries have given a special care and attention to this sport. The referee is the most important of the elements of basketball and that his success is closely associated with the success of its performance. In order to be on the safe harbor, the basketball referee must enjoy high physical fitness which is the most important pillars that qualify him to provide good levels of performance throughout the match.
This research is an attempt to put in the hands of the people concerned with refereeing one of the means of objective regulation by which the level of first-class basketball referees can be identified in all fields to choose some of them to be nominated to the international emblem. This can be made by identifying the physical abilities of basketball referees and tests and then determine the standards and levels of these capabilities, as well as the need to take the scientific concept of the evaluation process in the overall framework and setting standards and levels of referees according to some of the physical variables, as the aim of the research is to identify some of the physical variables of the rulers of first-class basketball in Iraq and tests. As well as setting standards and levels of physical tests for first-class referees basketball in Iraq, Part IV also included results sample members in physical variables and determine the standards and levels of physical variables and analyze and discuss the results of the sample in physical variables.
Also included Section V conclusions and most important of which determine the degrees and levels of standard of the rulers of first-class basketball in the variables physical while the researcher recommended testing rotating detect physical capacities of the rulers because tests periodic are modern scientific methods and important to know the real capabilities of the rulers.

The most important skill indicators for selecting tennis players category (16-17) years for the clubs of Southern and Middle Region

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 185-208

The problem of the research lies in fact that there is the absence of real standards based on a scientific basis for the selection of tennis players category (16-17) this year, causing a waste of effort, money and time.

The aim of the study is to identify the most important skill indicators for selecting tennis players for this category.
The descriptive method in the style of survey and correlation studies correlation to solve the problem of the research. The research community consists of players of the clubs of the Middle and Southern Region. The number of players is (36) players. Because of the small number of community, the researcher has to take two views for each player. Two experiments are conducted to identify the obstacles, times of tests and extract the scientific bases. Tests have taken (80) days.

The research comes up with several conclusions. Several skills are extracted such as service (to test the force and strength of the performance of the service). Indicators of skill tests = 0.552 × the value of White's test for send + 0.447 × the value of testing the accuracy of the strike the front straight long)

Adopting the indicators identified by this study for tennis players is highly recommended.

"Some of the Vocational Problems of the Instructors of Fencing in the Departments and Colleges of Physical Education at the Iraqi Universities"

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 209-234

Management is one of the sciences which contribute to developing the lesson of physical education. It effectively participates to raise its level in all aspects. The recent development of physical education makes it resort to scientific procedures to treat its problems properly. Good management and programmed organization help solving all problems because the lesson of fencing, like all other lessons whether individual or team, needs good management and organization. So, the importance of this research is to look into the professional problems facing the teaching staff.
The problem of the research is that there are certain problems facing teaching the material of such as (problems of the material of fencing, problems of studying fencing, problems of implementing the curriculum and other problems).
The aims of the research include exploring the reality of the the material of fencing in the departments and Colleges of Physical Education at the Iraqi Universities as well as the most important professional problems which the instructor of fencing subject encounters in the departments and Colleges of Physical Education in all Iraqi Universities.
The descriptive method is used by the researcher in the style of survey because it greatly suits the nature of this research and the building of the scale. The society of the research includes (44) male and female instructors of fencing. They researcher makes use of all this society because it represents a small number. According to the procedures of building the scale, there are (2) axes in the preliminary specification of the axes which are related to the professional problems of the instructors. Then, items for every one of these axis are formulated, and they are (18) items for instructors. They are distributed according to their relative importance. Also, the procedure of formulating the items is determined according to Likert Scale. However, the items are exposed to a group of experts and specialists to specify its validity, selected (14) items for measuring instructors professional problems. Moreover, after applying the scale, the statistical analyses are carried out according to their

The effect of Using Two Kinds of Exploration in Learning Some Forms of shooting in Handball for Students

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 235-258

. The importance of the research is to find modern means in learning skills of handball.
The problem of the research is that a disparity in students' level in performing handball skills is noticed by the researcher. This results from teachers using traditional educational means in teaching skills which do not give significant role for the learner for enhancing his skillful level.

The research aims at exploring 1- the effect of using two kinds of Exploration (directive, semi-directive) in learning some types of shooting in handball for the students of second year, College of Physical Education, University of Al-Qadissiya. 2- which one of the two kinds is better in learning some shooting types in handball for the students of second year, College of Physical Education, University of Al-Qadissiya.

The hypotheses of the research includes: 1- There is a positive effect by using two kinds of Exploration (directive, semi-directive) in learning some forms of shooting in handball for the students of second year, College of Physical Education, University of Al-Qadisiya. 2- There are significant differences between the two kinds of Exploration in learning some shooting forms in handball for the students of second year, for the sake of semi-directive Exploration.

The researcher applies experimental research on two experimental groups and one control group. The sample of the research includes (54) of second year students at the College of Physical Education – University of Al-Qadisiya.

The study comes up with conclusion that directive and semi-directive Exploration styles have a positive effect on learning some forms of shooting.

Applying the two directive styles as scientific means in teaching some shooting forms (shooting from fulcrum, shooting through forward jumping, shooting through jumping up, shooting through forward falling) is highly recommended.

Designing and Experimenting a Compensational Upper Part for Disabled Athletes in Accordance with some biokinamatic variables and their effect on the Speed and Achievement Stages of the 100m. (T46)

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 259-286

Sporting events which include running, jumping and throwing require the use of the upper and lower limbs effectively to serve the motor duty. The activity of the 100m. freestyle deals with the maximum strain for the runner with the accurate performance from the first moment of the start and until the finish line, and require continuous swinging of the arms and high ability of the movements the legs. Throwing light on the kinmatic variables through the movement analysis of setting up the compensational upper part I accordance with the mechanical and physical bases will explain the improvement in the stages of speed and achievement for 100m running. The mechanical role of the arms is important in this event as it contributes through swinging in keeping balance and the loss of one of the arms affects the performance of this activity, causing an imbalance in achieving some biokinamatic conditions.
The research aims to develop achievement through designing a compensational part according to biokinamatic variables and testing them in multiple stages to 100m.
The research community is represented by the player of the Iraqi National Team for Athletics 100m. for the disabled category (T46) left arm amputated over the elbow. The test consists of 10 samples for each 10m. running with and without the compensational part.
The study comes up with some important conclusions and recommendations. It is concluded that there is an effect on the total time of the race because of the improvement of the mechanical condition of setting and in the action of the arms. The need to installing artificial limbs for the disabled in the case of imputation, which in its turn serves achievement , is highly recommended

(( Measurement and assessment of the general performance for the players of the Iraqi clubs of the excellent stage in handball for the sporting season 2011 –2012

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 287-332

The importance of the research lies in the fact that measurement and assessment of the general performance of the handball players is to be acquainted with the negative aspects and points of weakness.
The problem of the research is that most players of the excellent stage cannot notice their points of weakness, their deficient performance and that competitions are not enough to expose such cases or assessing the level of their performance.
The research aims at 1- measuring and assessing the level of general performance (Knowledge –Physical –Skill) of the handball players/ Iraqi clubs of the excellent stage for sporting season (2010-2011). 2
The research comes up with several conclusions and recommendations. It is shown that there is no positive response by coaches and players for applying the tests of performance and that the sporting clubs have to be aware of the importance of scientific research in this respect. It is highly recommended that paying special attention to psychological test is as important as the physical one and has its positive effect on developing the good abilities of the players.

Effect Using Aiding Means on learning the Skill of Circular Waving on pommel horse

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 333-356

The importance of research is to show that using learning aids and special apparatuses contributes to the acquisition of knowledge and skill of various fields, developing and accelerating the process of motor learning in gymnastics.

The problem of the research is that it is notices that there are problems in learning the skill of circular waving for many reasons like weakness of physical features that effect on performance of handle horse for student of the college of physical education. This requires high flexibility in spine and hip joint, as well as strength of endurance for muscles of the arms for stability and changing in the arms work. So, it is very necessary to create helpful means to teach this skill through designing teaching apparatus and following gradual concept to simplify the process of motor learning.

The research aims at identifying the effect of suggested multi purposes system in teaching circular waving on pommel horse

The hypothesis of the research is that the suggested multi purpose apparatus has significant effect on teaching circular waving.

The study comes up with several conclusions and recommendations. It is concluded that the suggested multi purposes apparatus is better than normal pommel horse apparatus in teaching circular waving skill. Generalizing this apparatus to the colleges of physical education all over Iraq to be used as a learning aid for teaching circular waving in gymnastics

The Effect of Two Training Loads on the performance Endurance for Junior Volleyball Players of Al- Daghara Club

Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 357-386

The importance of this research lies in the fact that it is a highly significant study from a physiological and training point of views. It deals with the effects of training with two different loads on the endurance of performance for junior volleyball players.

The research has two objectives. The first objective is to prepare two different loads to develop the endurance of performance for junior volleyball players. The second one is to explore the differences of the quality of the endurance of performance for junior volleyball players of the two groups.

The study comes up with some conclusions and recommendations. Among the most important conclusions is that the training loads have their positive effect on developing the components of performance endurance for Junior volleyball players. It is strongly recommended that training load be used to develop performance endurance for Junior volleyball players